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Colour photographic dustwrapper with pink coloured titles to the front panel and black coloured titles to the backstrip. Colour photograph of the author to the rear fold over panel. A guide on how to make and create soft furnishings, from tablecloths, cushions, blinds and even duvet doona covers. Rubbing to the lower book edges with very light age toning of the textblock edges. Previous owners name to the top edge of the free front end paper. With a colour illustrated dustwrapper and illustrated throughout with black-and-white, and also colour reproductions of art works.
Original black papered boards. X, pages, last page blank, preface by author, maps, notes, bibliography, tentative chronology of sculptural works, glossary, sources of photographs, list of places and index of names. The text is illustrated with black-and-white photographs of Greek art and artefacts. Richter's lucid and concise presentation will enable every reader, whether or not he has previous knowledge of ancient Greece, to understand one of the greatest chapters in the history of European art and to appreciate the countless masterpieces that have survived from Hellenic times.
There is no damage to describe to either the content or the softcover binding with attached fold over flaps. The book is broken into 4 sections, by time period , then the war, and fame , the gaining of an international reputation and, the final years Includes acknowledgement and bibliography. Colour illustrated dustwrapper. There is very slight rubbing to both the top and bottom edges of the dustwrapper,with a short tear at the heel of the spine, and gift annotation dated in ink on the 1st page, otherwise the book and dustwrapper are in very good order.
Rather than attempting a comprehensive history, the author outlines the major personalities in European painting, giving equal prominence to those who are currently fashionable and to those who are not. He starts in the 13th century, at a time when painting can be more properly studied independent of other art such as manuscript illumination and stained glass, he discusses the birth and development of the Renaissance both in Italy and in Europe, and then deals with the 16th, and 17th centuries, the baroque, the rococo, and a long section is devoted to neoclassicism and romanticism with the remainder of the 19th century assessed in terms of the development in contemporary thought and philosophy which helped to shape the major artistic movements of the time.
Internally clean and free of annotation. Magnificently illustrated, with many fold out and detail reproductions.. In original hardcover binding, the book shows no damage. The "fine art" of the title relates, not to culinary genius, but to the illustrations, which have been chosen partly to amplify the text and partly to show how painters have look at food in the context of their own times. Internally clean. There is no other damage to describe. Illustrated with reproductions of artworks, and with a bibliography, and with an index of recipes as well as a general index.
This book captures some of the best work of a host of important painters from a wide range of cultures, periods and painting schools, with over 60 examples beautifully reproduced. The author, a respected food historian and Cook considers what is revealed about the food and cooking of the period, the attitude of the different cultures to a variety of ingredients, and how they were 1st introduced into their culinary art.
A girl shelling peas wouldn't give much away about society of the time that it was painted. T-shirt graphics provide a quick and easy way to do exactly that, giving a silent but powerful insight into the psych and beliefs of whoever is wearing the shirt. For some reason, people feel absolutely entitled to comment on what's on the front of your shirt, regardless of whether you've ever actually been introduced. As such what to wear genuinely affect your life that day.
Illustrator: Artwork. The collection of more than of the world's most outstanding CD and PA covers, featuring designs for all musical genres. Internally clean, without annotations. And with no damage. The text is illustrated with 73 reproductions of various artworks, from different periods and different artists. At the rear of the book is a map of the Old Arts Building and where the various artworks could be found. Clear plastic front cover with a stiff and black coloured board for the rear panel underneath the clear plastic cover is a reproduction of one of the artworks, and to the top edge of that page black coloured titles.
Apart from some rubbing of the rear panel the shows no damage. Not paginated, [74 pages]. The frontispiece and all other plates have been printed on a yellow coloured paper. A previous owner has covered the book in a contact plastic. Creasing to the book corners and rubbing to the book edges. Browning to the dustwrapper and browning to the textblock edges. Illustrator: paintings. The pictures reproduced in this book have been divided into nine categories, and each section is accompanied by a detailed introductory essay written by a well-known artistry on.
Many of the pictures are reproduced here for the first time, and there is also a number of impressive but little-known works by major artists. VII, pages, list of plates, details of the paintings, artists in public collections and index. Colour illustrated endpapers, being a reproduction of Arthur Streeton's painting "Golden Summer, ". The text is illustrated with 48 reproductions of Australian paintings, the first being painted in and the last painted in Gray speckled coloured boards with gilt titles to the backstrip. Colour illustrated dustwrapper being a reproduction of the painting by Charles Condor "The Farm, Richmond, ", against a pink background with maroon titles to the front panel and black titles to the backstrip.
Some of the best known and most famous of Australian paintings from convict times to the s. Top right of front panel creased, small chip on top edge of front panel, No other damage to describe, the book has a sewn binding for durability. Becoming harder to find. This now classic account of Australian art between the founding of Australia in and the late s has the author tracing the twin threads of desire for independence in Australian vision and the excessive influence of the European and American models.
In his few Australian painting is a phenomenon to be discussed within the total context of contemporary art. The text is illustrated with the music for the carols within the text. Colour illustrated front cover with green, red and ochre coloured titles to the front panel. Rubbing and creasing to the book corners and to the backstrip edges. The remains of tape can be seen on the title page and to the rear page and light age toning to the internal text. This book was first published by G. Schirmer in New York. Imperial edition number A book of carols for the unchanged voice.
III, pages. Illustrator: Photographic and Illustrations.
The text is illustrated with black-and-white photography, reproductions of illustrations, house plans, advertisements and the occasional colour reproduction. Colour photographic card cover with black, white and red coloured titles to the front panel and black coloured titles to the backstrip. A catalogue of an exhibition that was held at MIT List Visual Arts Centre, chronicling the changing aesthetics of the bathroom and kitchen in the American household over the course of the 20th century.
Remains of a price sticker to be seen to the lower left-hand corner of the rear panel. Dust jacket is rubbed across the top edge that has no other damage. Previous owner's name on the front end pages, there is foxing to the verso of the front end page and to the half title page, and to the verso of the rear end page. The book has at the rear a dictionary, and a chronology. It is illustrated with part in full page colour plates. The book covers the period through to Illustrator: reproductions of artworks.
This book provides an overview of years of Australian art, including that done by visitors to the country, and those born in the country, including indigenous painters. Sections include the land the past, the land the present, the people present, the land of the past catalogue, the people the past catalogue, the people the present catalogue and a list of Australian public regional and metropolitan galleries along with a map.
The text is illustrated with numerous colour reproductions of paintings from across the spectrum of ages. Blue coloured textured boards with gilt coloured titles to the backstrip. The pleasure that such works of art are capable of giving is of a kind that increases with time. This book has been designed to guide the art-lover, no matter what his age or how this slender his experience, towards the ability to distinguish good paintings from bad. Rubbing to the backstrip edges and book corners. Chipping to the dustwrapper corners and backstrip edges.
There is a 1. Sunning of the dustwrapper, most noticeable on the fold over panels. First English Translation. XVI, 80 pages, preface by author list of illustrations and index. The text is Illustrated with black and white reproductions of European art work. Pink coloured boards with white pasted insert on the front panel and spine with black writing. Bumping, rubbing and fraying to the head and to the heel of the spine and to the book corners. The spine has become quite darkened due to the sun. Slight fading to the top book edges and scuffing of the book panels.
Browning and foxing to the top paper edge and browning to the other paper edges. Browning to the endpapers and to the internal pages as well. Original bookseller's sticker to the lower right-hand corner of the front paste down. In this book the author traces the influence that the Church, the State, the patron had upon the artist and artisans also looking at impersonal forces like the camera and warfare. Size: 12mo standard paperback. The text is illustrated with both copious colour and black-and-white photographs, illustrations and line drawings.
Colour photographic dustwrapper with yellow and blue coloured titles to the front panel and backstrip. Clearly written and highly illustrated throughout, it feels the need for a comprehensive handbook on all the free press and printing processes. Rubbing to the backstrip corners with bumping to the book corners.
Rubbing to the lower book edges. The remains of a sticker can be seen to the lower left-hand corner of the rear panel. The illustrated dust jacket has several short tears and is now protected. The top edge of the text block tinted by the publisher. The remarkable collection in this book had its beginnings in a highly successful exhibition Organised at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington DC.
The text is illustrated with both colour and black and white photographs and illustrations. Colour photographic card cover with ochre coloured titles to the front panel and backstrip. Minor creasing to the book corners with rubbing of the book edges and panels. Very light age toning of the textblock edges. This book does not include works of New Zealand origin.
Acquisitions and donations up to October, are recorded. There is an index to the artist, and all the entries are separated into nationality of origin.. For the book itself, the book has been carefully encased in clear adhesive plastic,, and has had no damage, and has Previous owner's name at the top of the 1st page and also at the top of the title page. No other damage to describe. Illustrated with one 12th of a page through to half full page illustrations reproduced both in colour and black-and-white.
Item Type: Magazine. Illustrated endpapers. The text is illustrated with numerous colour photographs, black-and-white photographs, colour and black-and-white illustrations. Black coloured boards with silver coloured titles to the front panel and back strip. Photographic dustwrapper with white coloured titles to the front panel and back strip. In this book we find out "Why Japanese design is pre-eminent throughout the modern world.
A Japanese design combines respectful tradition with an awareness of the needs of the future. Rubbing to the book corners and back strip edges. There is a small hole, 2 inches from the lower back strip edge, front cover. A little age toning of the text block edges. Rubbing of the dustwrapper edges and of the panels and there is a whole, commensurate with hole on the book, to the lower left hand corner of the front panel. There is a 2 inch tear to the lower edge of the rear panel with associated creasing and there is a small piece missing from that tear.
Creasing of the top dustwrapper edge. Paesaggio laziale tra ideale e reale. Illustrator: art Works. The book is illustrated with colour reproductions of artworks, and some black-and-white small reproductions. Includes a bibliography, details on each of the artwork shown and an introductory essay. There is an essay a reminiscence of Sir Ellis Waterhouse.
The previous owner's name is at the top of the first page, and the last page of the book indicates that this is the third edition. Illustrated endpapers, being a pink and white illustration of a theatrical curtain. The text is illustrated with numerous black and white photographs from Australian variety history, black-and-white illustrations and facsimile reprints of handbills and theatre programmes. Maroon coloured boards with white writing on the spine.
Photographic dustwrapper, showing a montage of Australian variety personalities against a pink and white background with black-and-white writing on the front panel and spine. A history of Australian variety Hall and vaudeville from the s through to the s. This is the first Australian edition. Size: Quarto -- up to 12 " Tall. Illustrator: diagrams and drawings. There are 31 designs, the 1st 4 or 5 or 6 pages show you how to use the stencils, then there is a page of stencils ready to be popped out, and the next page shows a colour version of the stencil.
The book is a unique collection of classic designs that can be used throughout the home and the design can be mixed and matched to create patterns. The text is illustrated with colour photography, some step-by-step and the occasional black and white illustration. Colour photographic laminated boards with blue and black coloured titles to the front panel and backstrip. Photographic dustwrapper, same illustration as the underlying boards, with blue and black coloured titles to the front panel and backstrip.
A book on mosaics with 35 designs were both internal and external use. Dust Jacket is in very good condition, without tears or chips or other damage. Book is in very good condition with minimal signs of age and wear.. The text is illustrated with colour, black and white photographs and Black and white drawings. He has been either regarded as a heretic or the high priest in the religion of mass production and technology.feldiaranlucu.cf
Monsters and Aliens from George Lucas - AbeBooks - Bob Carrau:
In this book. The author argues, " They provoke us to confront the social consequences of modern technology. Sheeler appears in this book, as neither believe nor heretic in the cult of the machine. Lucic asks us to grant Sheeler his ambivalence, for it was this that enabled him to betray modernity so splendidly.
Creasing to the book corners and rubbing to the book edges and book panels. Introduction by authors, glossary and index. The text is decorated with beautiful colour photography taken by Lisl Dennis. At the rear of the book there is 10 pages, of a bright yellow coloured stock, which details travelling to Morocco, places to buy Moroccan artefacts, both in Morocco,the US and Britain and the aforementioned glossary and index.
Colour photographic paperback binding, with French flaps with white and yellow coloured titles to the front panel and blue and white coloured titles to the back strip. The book is filled with vibrantly coloured ceilings, decorated courtyards and walls, plaster Paris carved and painted in intricate geometrics, tiles so small that could fit in a matchbox. Some creasing of the book corners and back strip edges.
There is a small split to the top left-hand corner of the back trip which is also somewhat faded. The book panels so a few marks and scores of the laminate and there is fading to the extreme left-hand edge of the rear panel. Illustrator: photographs and drawings. It could be given as a present. The book is illustrated with a sequence of colour plates showing the various styles of kimono, and then there is a historical section showing the various types of dress in Japanese culture, and then there is a section with black-and-white photographs and some drawings showing how to put on a kimono and obi.
The final section of the book is involved with the cleaning of the kimono and also with kimono etiquette. Illustrator: Mackay. Preface by editor, introduction by John W. The text is illustrated with numerous black-and-white drawings by Mackay. Red coloured boards with gilt coloured titles to the back strip. Illustrated dustwrapper, again by Mackay, with white coloured titles to the front panel and black and white coloured titles to the back strip. A selection of the Scottish poet Robert Burns' poetry, epistles and songs. The selection has been chosen on the basis of underlying humour or not so underlying.
Softening to the back strip edges with fading commensurate with loss of dustwrapper also present, and this fading has also occurred to the top edges. Age toning of the text block edges and pages. Chipping to the dustwrapper corners and back strip edges, in fact the top 2 inches of the back strip is missing. Chips, tears and creases to the top dustwrapper edge with a small, 0. Rubbing of the dustwrapper panels with light browning of the fold over panels and browning to the verso. A previous owner has tried to support various tears to the top edge with tape residue visible.
Five - XVI, pages,. Dust jacket is price clipped.
Patterns reproduced in both colour and black-and-white. Includes a glossary This book has patterns from the Edo period They were used for textiles, printed papers, lacquer ware and other everyday objects. Full number line. ISBN: x. Illustrator: Trevor Nickolls. Illustrated end pages, being black-and-white reproductions of lithographs by Trevor Nickolls. The text is illustrated with both colour and black-and-white reproductions of the artists' work.
Colour illustrated paperback binding with black coloured titles to the front panel and back strip. For, as the rear panel blurb states " A wide range of artists from the 15th century to the early 20th century is represented in the gifts to the department to in the last 20 years. This eclecticism, which reflects the ultimate goals of balancing comprehensiveness for the collection, means that within a total to date of 52 gifts there are no obvious stylistic or national groupings.
Therefore the catalogue is arranged in chronological order by date of acquisition, which at least give some sense of how the collection has developed. The book is illustrated with colour and black and white reproductions of the artworks exhibited. The book includes an extensive bibliography. There is also an essay by Janice Simon.
Third Edition. Is this book for you? The text is illustrated with both colour and black-and-white drawings, photographs and graphs. Plain text paperback binding with white, pale grey and yellow coloured titles to the front panel and white and pale grey coloured titles to the back strip. Colour photograph of author to the rear panel. Robin uses her straightforward and light-hearted style to identify the surprisingly simple principles of good design and the logic behind those principles. Using numerous examples, you will learn what looks best and why on your way to designing beautiful and effective projects.
A little creasing of the book corner and to the back strip edges otherwise no damage to report. The Painted Season. A Year in The life of the British Countryside. Illustrator: Dick Twinney. The book is profusely illustrated with double page, and single page illustrations of wildlife, be they birds or animals. Each evocative painting is complemented by an informative, sometimes anecdotal commentary. Illustrator: David Suff. The text is illustrated with paintings executed by the author.
Colour illustrated hardcover with green coloured titles to the front panel and yellow coloured titles to the backstrip. The author has executed 22 pieces of art showing the hidden pledges and gentleness of gardens. There is a bump to the top backstrip edge. Rubbing of the book panels and age toning of the textblock edges. Not paginated.
French Paintings from the Musee Fabre, Montpellier. The front cover is slightly curved, there is no other damage to describe, the book is clean and free of annotation. There are 4 pages of colour plates at the start of the book, and then through the text there are a number of black-and-white photographs. A concise history of subway graffiti in New York done through candid interviews. XIV, pages. Clean dust jacket without damage, with a that is free of annotation. Illustrated with both black-and-white and colour photographs and reproductions artworks.
This book, published up the centenary of the gallery provides a general introduction to the gallery and its collections. Each of the articles in the book was written by an expert in his or her field, the writers being members of the gallery's staff with the exception of Professor David Saunders. Previous owner's name stamp on the 1st page. Illustrated with black and white, and 80 colour illustrations, the book gives an overview of painting, architecture, sculpture, ceramics, jewellery, silver, glass, textiles and furniture, as well as books, clocks, garden, float, photography and studio crafts.
First Paperback Edition. The text is illustrated with a illustrations, of which are in colour. Colour photographic paperback binding, with French flaps, with white coloured titles to the front panel and black coloured titles to the back strip. A look at the arts and crafts of Thailand, not just the Royal and aristocratic trappings, but " From the most basic traditions of village life and objects of everyday use in food preparation and storage, weeding, hunting and fishing, to the aristocratic tradition A little rubbing of the book edges and panels with a little creasing of the book corners.
The book is second-hand, but there is no damage to describe. In this book the author examines a number of key philosophical and scientific ideas current in the Hellenistic world, and relates them to panel manifestations in sculpture, architecture, painting and literature in a way that shared is a flood of new light on what had previously seemed familiar territory. Numerous in-text plates and line drawings, covering a wide variety of art forms, illustrate the argument at every stage. Black coloured card covers, with French flaps, with Tiffany blue coloured titles to the front panel and backstrip.
Comic books in 'Books'
Rubbing of the book corners and panels. Size: 16mo very small. The buildings profiled here have proved enduring monuments to their architects' visions and the hopes and dreams of their eras. Presented in full-colour, double-page spreads, these buildings represent nearly every continent on the globe and almost every architectural trend of the past century.
The double-page spreads provide numerous photographs and plans, a summary of the architect's career, and fascinating anecdotes about building sites, materials, and construction. This is the first edition in the English language.
A very clean secondhand copy, with no damage to report. Previous owner's name on first page. The text is illustrated with black-and-white photographs. Bumping into the head and to the heel of the spine and shelfwear to the lower spine edge. Browning to the paper edges. Remainder splatter to the bottom paper edge. The front fore edge of the paper has been hand cut. Photographic dustwrapper, showing Mel Brooks and Anne Bancroft against a bone coloured background with maroon and black writing on the front panel and spine. The dustwrapper is slightly rubbed at the corners and there is crinkling and creasing to the top and bottom dustwrapper edges.
There is a 0. The tear of the rear dustwrapper edge has been repaired with paper, tape still in situ. Rubbing and grubby marks are also present to the rear panel of the dustwrapper and the remains of a sticker can be seen to the top right-hand corner of the front dustwrapper panel. The biography of Mel books and Anne Bancroft, who despite being both individualistic and professional actors had the rarest of all -- a successful marriage. Illustrator: Monotone plates. The corners of the rear panel are rubbed, with slight curling at the bottom left corner and plate 86 and plate 87 have a very small crease on the external margin.
The central section of plates has reproductions. There is a chronological table at the rear of the book, and index. XII, ,  pages. IV, pages, includes bibliography and index. Illustrated with photographs and reproductions of art works in black-and-white. Introduced by Herbert Read. There are minor handling marks to the front edge of the text block otherwise the book shows no damage. Dust jacket, no annotations, no damage to the book. Illustrated with monotone photographs of artworks and buildings and sculpture, and also illustrated with site maps and diagrams of building layouts. Covering Roman architecture, ornament and decoration, non-periodic styles and Roman eclecticism, and periodic styles in the figured arts.
The dustjacket is faded on the left-hand side of the front panel, and is rubbed and chips at the head of the spine and at the head of the front fold over flap. Traces of foxing are visible on the underside of the jacket. Original bookseller's sticker at the lower right hand corner of the front page down. There is no other damage to be described.
Illustrated colour photographic reproductions of art works and statuary, and a floor diagram of the museum's ground floor and first floor. Please note that the text is in Italian. Slight ruffling of the top edge of the jacket, no other damage to describe. He believes that good design must work in a comfortable and practical way, meeting the needs of those who live with it. Illustrator: James Merrell -- Photography.
Every aspect of flower arranging is covered, from choosing a colour or season-related theme, through selecting or creating the perfect container, to making give bouquets and more permanent displays the use rooted plants. Slight insect damage to the lower left of the front free end page. Small tear in the bottom edge of the front board, 1. No other damage to note. In colour illustrated softcover binding indexed. A nice clean copy with no damage to describe, no annotation. The book is all about designing and creating hand-painted ceramics and using them to match or complete interior design effects.
Innovative default techniques are combined with a stylish and imaginative approach to using ceramics or interior decoration, the result is both a practical how-to manual and inspirational style guide. Clear step-by-step project photography and beautiful inspirational pictures of finished pieces are reinforced by sections and basic around painting skills and techniques: materials and equipment; and the care and maintenance of the finished objects.
The text is illustrated with copious colour photography. Photographic card cover with white colour title to the front panel and backstrip. A walk through some of Australia's best homes. Illustrator: Lempicka. It must be conceded that the biography of Tamara de Lempicka, nee Gorska is not exactly bulging with facts. Like Greta Garbo, with whom she was acquainted, this star of art deco painting did everything she could to cover her tracks, leaving behind but few biographical castoffs in an abundance of mysterious silence. Carefully selected castoffs, mark you, chosen to promote her own image, like the trailer for some serial.
The book has 50 double page entries, unpaginated. The book has 52 double page entries, unpaginated. Assisi and the rise of vernacular art. Stubblebine, James H. Illustrator: Giotto. A clean copy, there is no damage to describe, illustrated with black-and-white photographs of the frescoes. This provocative and original interpretation of the framed Assisi frescoes offers a new understanding of how these frescoes reflected the leads and perceptions of the time and of the audience they were created for.
The stitching has loosened, so that there is a gap between the dictionary section, and the colour illustrated plates section. The original light grey cloth over boards is clean. Sale, May 19, The dustjacket has a short tear at the top right of the front panel. There is no other damage to describe.. The text is illustrated with numerous black and white reproductions of various artists works with the occasional colour plate, and a small black-and-white photograph or black-and-white illustration of each artist represented. Illustrated boards, with a dull green background and small white illustrations to the boards and white titles to the backstrip.
For a quarter of a century I have helped to make Australian artists better known in this country through art books and publications. The Australian public is now familiar with most of the paintings which have been continually published in reproductions during the last 25 years. The value of art publication in Australia is that it makes the artist's work known beyond each State. Even art exhibitions do not penetrate beyond cities, and few exhibitions are sent out of the country.
The value of a book is that it can be sent anywhere. Now in this book I am introducing paintings and sculptures by artists, many of whom are not generally known throughout Australia. For the Australian public these artists can be almost looked upon as a new crop. Rubbing to the head and to the heel of the backstrip and bumping and rubbing to the book corners. The book panels have become slightly scuffed and stained. Light foxing and very light browning to the text block edges. Faint browning to the endpapers.
IV, pages,. Illustrator: Paul Klee. Slight edge wear to the top edge of the dustwrapper, with a 0. The book is otherwise free of damage, or annotation. The author at the time of the writing of this book was keeper of the Scottish National Gallery of modern Art, Edinburgh and had organised exhibitions of the artist works in and Contains reproductions of some of the paintings in black and white, and some in colour a total of entries indexed. To argue that they do is not only disingenuous but demeaning to the complexity and richness of the biblical books.
Taking the Bible Seriously In our house, growing up, we had a big gold couch with olive-green flower embroidery. From the ages of seven to about ten, my mom and I would sit on this couch and read the Bible together before school. We had an oversize two-volume Treasury of Bible Stories with lengthy excerpts from the whole Bible illustrated with larger-than-life paintings on nearly every page.
My mom took me and my questions seriously. The Bible was ours to read, question, wonder about, and deliberate, and sometimes it was the ques- tions that mattered more than the answers. On those weekday mornings before school, the Bible was not a collection of policy statements that had to be obeyed or a weapon designed to enforce particular views about mo- rality, but an invitation to think about who God might be and what it means to be human. Inspired, in part, by my mom and those mornings on the big gold couch, I am now a Bible scholar, an ordained American Baptist pastor, and a professor of religion.
I have the good fortune of contemplating these and other questions full-time. The only way that the Bible can be regarded as straightforward and simple is if no one bothers to read it. As I had al- ready gathered as a child, the Bible is not only contradictory but complex. Biblical books take sides, they disagree with one another, they intention- ally change earlier teachings, and they make irreconcilable claims about human life and the nature of God. In some cases, they promote points of view that, from a modern perspective anyway, are patently immoral. Introduction 11 This is no less true when it comes to sex than for any other topic.
One cannot and should not expect easy answers from the Bible, a lesson that Americans, at least, should have learned a century ago. Slaves Obey Your Masters In , reflecting on slavery in the state of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson declared: I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just: that his jus- tice cannot sleep forever: that considering numbers, nature and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situa- tion, is among possible events: that it may become probable by super- natural interference!
The Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a contest. Yet it was not always so. Throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth cen- turies, numerous biblical scholars, theologians, and pastors argued that God was on the side of slavery, and the Bible was repeatedly invoked to support their arguments. For example, quoting the New Testament letter to the Ephesians in , writer and editor J. The emphatic endorsement of marriage in Ephesians cannot be sepa- rated from an equally emphatic endorsement of slavery a few verses later.
They belong to a separate category altogether. Wives, children, and slaves, then, are separate categories, though each must submit to the male head of the household. Since slaves were the full sexual property of their masters, any sexual relationships between them would require the permission of their owners. Therefore, this letter does not support marriage between one man and one woman but between one free man and one free woman, who then live together in a hierarchi- cal household populated by a husband, a wife, their children, and their slaves.
Since they are property, the sexual lives of slaves belong to the master, who has full sexual access to them, if he so desires. Though ancient slavery was not identical to slavery as practiced and enforced in an American context, it, too, was an abusive and inherently violent system designed to exploit some human lives and bodies for the benefit of others. Instead, proper interpretation required a set of principles that could determine what the Bible must, in the end, say.
For them, that prin- ciple was the Golden Rule. Since one could not love a neighbor and own him at the same time, Jesus can only have intended slavery to end. It is time to stop pretending that, read uncritically and out of context, the Bible will set anyone free. As the story goes, after dismissing his Persian wife, Vashti, for refusing to appear before the court in all her beauty, Ahasuerus decides to choose a new wife for himself from among the most beautiful virgins in his kingdom. Living in the harem, she nevertheless refuses to aban- don her fidelity to her ancestral god, Yhwh, keeping her ethnic identity and her religious commitments secret at the instructions of her father, Mordecai.
When it is her turn to be brought before King Ahasuerus, he finds her to be the most pleasing of all the virgins and chooses her to be his queen. The book ends with Esther and Mordecai founding the Jewish festival of Purim in celebration of these great events, which are to be commemorated each year. Indeed, Purim is celebrated to this day.
If Jezebel is portrayed in 1 and 2 Kings as the nightmare that every Israelite should avoid, Esther is portrayed as her opposite. On the one hand is Esther, a heroine who protects her people by preserving their right to worship Yhwh alone, even though they dwell in a foreign land. Be- coming justly famous, she and her father are widely revered, especially among Jews living abroad. Like Esther and Mordecai, these Jews have no choice but to negotiate the complex problems faced by a minority people inhabiting a much larger and more powerful empire.
Justly infamous, her name becomes a curse, both in the way it is translated in Hebrew and as it was applied by later Jewish and Christian authors to other detested women e. Yet how different were these two women really? Though one was Jewish and the other Phoenician, one royal and the other the orphan daughter of resident aliens, they share a great deal in common. As the daughter of a Phoenician king, Jezebel would have been appointed as a high priestess of her ancestral god, Baal Melquart, and asked to serve as a representative of her religious faith from a young age.
Given to Ahab, the king of Israel, by her father, the king of Sidon, she, like Esther, was not asked to agree to the match. Installed as queen of Israel, she brought her culture, her gods, and her companions with her, refusing to abandon her devotion to Baal, just as Esther had refused to abandon Yhwh or her adoptive father, Mor- decai. Given the opportunity, Jezebel worked to promote Baal worship in Israel, her new home, over the objections of the prophet Elijah. Similarly, Esther worked to promote the good fortune of her people, resident aliens in Persia, over the objections of Haman the Agagite.
Both Jezebel and Esther arranged for the deaths of their enemies, and both employed their feminine wiles to advance their goals. Like the seventh-grade girls of Evanston, Illinois, biblical writers took sides, designating one woman as the shameful slut Jezebel and the other as the heroic queen Esther. Opening the Bible As interpreters, readers of the Bible today are asked to take sides too: for or against Jezebel, for or against slavery, and for or against particular kinds of marriages, to offer just a few examples.
Should we openly declare our com- mitment to premarital virginity and abstinence, or will sex education and informed consent lead young people to make healthy sexual choices? Whose side is the Bible on anyway? Rather than getting caught up in these debates by attempting to pull the Bible over to a particular side, this book invites readers to encounter the full complexity of the biblical witness, taking both the diversity and the peculiarity of the Bible into account.
Instead of repeating slogans and sound bites about sex and the Bible, this book presents a detailed analysis of biblical attitudes and assumptions while also exploring the reception of biblical narratives by later Christian and Jewish interpreters, each of whom had his or her own, unique approach to what were already a di- verse set of biblical traditions.
If one book recommends polygamy, the next recommends celibacy. If one revels in erotic desire, the next warns that desire is evil, a source of nothing but trouble. If one assumes that women should be prophets, the next tells women to sit down and remain silent. If one assumes that children and property are the aim of human life, the next longs for the sex-free life of angels.
And so on. The Bible does not offer a systematic set of teachings or a single sexual code, but it does reveal sometimes conflicting attempts on the part of people and groups to define sexual morality, and to do so in the name of God. If I could meet my twelve-year-old self now, I would like to invite her to sit with me on a big gold couch with olive-green flowers. After snuggling in and getting comfortable, we would read the Bible together, asking whatever questions might occur to us. Along the way, we would discover that biblical writers told stories and presented teachings that are much more complex and fantastic than anything we could have imagined.
Bound by their own histories, languages, and concerns, ancient writers, we would notice, were as worried as we are about the nature of human bodies, the meanings of sex and desire, and what might constitute an ethical sexual life. We would not hesitate, however, to call some of their answers into question, particularly when those answers seem to demand suffering, destruction, or death.
We would not rejoice when Jezebel was finally thrown over the palace walls and eaten by dogs. The Song of Songs, an ancient erotic poem that was once considered the holiest of all the holy books, will serve as our first example.
This amaz- ing poem is filled with luscious imagery designed to awaken the desires of lovers for each other, whether those lovers are imagined as a human couple or as a metaphorical pairing expressive of the erotic charge be- tween humanity and God. Turning to the book of Ruth and stories about King David, we will meet protagonists who eagerly engage in sexual in- tercourse outside the bonds of marriage and are blessed as a result.
Exodus and Deuteronomy assumed polygamy to be the normal Israelite practice, with instructions given regarding how to treat slave concubines and second wives. Because, as chapter 3 demonstrates, by the time the New Testament was written, many Jews and Christians thought that sexual desire was a problem to be solved, not a blessing given by God. The truly faithful should therefore attempt to overcome desire altogether. Biblical books like Leviticus, Joshua, and Revelation represented the enemies of Israel or the opponents of the Christians as sexual deviants, suggesting that worship of any God other than Yhwh inevitably leads to sexual excess.
But these tales of sexual overindulgence are not innocent fun. Yet, as chapter 5 will show, from the perspective of the Bible, the worst form of sexual deviance was not sex outside of marriage or even incest and bestiality but sex with angels. In chapter 6, biblical teachings regarding menstruation, semen, and cir- cumcision will be scrutinized. Why were Israelites circumcised? Why was menstrual blood considered polluting? And why was semen polluting as well, though it was also regarded as a precious resource? An earlier concern to protect the temple in Jerusalem from the contagious pollution of menstrual blood became a metaphor for pollution in general by New Testament times.
Once the temple was destroyed alto- gether, both Jews and Christians found new ways to regulate their genital discharges, with some ruling that menstruants and ejaculants could attend worship at the synagogue or church and others ruling that they could not. The organ was gone, the thrift store was a total loss, and the sanc- tuary was ruined. All that was left standing was the steeple and an empty shell of masonry walls, covered in ashes and ice. After the loss of our beloved church, we met in a trailer on our lot, with the shell of our build- ing behind us and the hope that someday we might rebuild.
Five years later, on Sunday, January 17, , the building was finally ready, or at least ready enough for us to move in. Those are, unfortunately, realities in life and especially in a life of faith. Whoever says otherwise is, as they say, selling something. She then quoted Martin Luther King Jr.
But still, not all was well that Sunday. Our Haitian brothers and sisters had suffered immensely a few days earlier, victims of the most terrible earth- quake to hit their homeland in generations. At First Baptist, we still had many bills to pay, sick members, losses and struggles to face, and a main sanctuary that is still incomplete. Yet so many people were there in our new multipurpose room, warm and dry under our new roof and refurbished steeple, glad to be alive.
For the moment, we could rejoice. For the moment, we could enjoy the party. Pasting a plastic smile on what are sometimes death-dealing commandments and disturb- ing stories will not lessen their potential for harm. Similarly, selectively citing what is uplifting and won- derful, however well meaning our intentions, will not teach us what the Bible truly means or what the Bible must truly say. The Bible is compli- cated enough, ancient enough, and flexible enough to support an almost endless set of interpretive agendas. Even today, progressives can cite scripture to celebrate the consecration of gay marriage just as effortlessly as conservatives can argue that God refuses to accept anything other than marriage between one man and one woman.
Rather, we ourselves must decide what kind of people we will become, what kinds of weddings should be cel- ebrated, and how best to love one another. By writing this book, I hope to move the current conversation about sex and the Bible past the polemical and shortsighted claims of the ERLC, the simplistic and harmful messages of Biblezines, and the confident pro- nouncements of slave apologists toward a larger understanding of what the Bible does have to say about bodies, sex, and gender.
Though biblical teachings are rarely easy or consistent, they can continue to resonate with our own concerns and experiences. Ancient people had bodies, too, and their bodies were as vulnerable to wounds and as in need of caresses as ours are today. It can also be a partner in the complicated dance of figuring out what it means to live in bodies that are filled with longing, both to touch and to be touched.
Park and others are not always this threatening, but the over- all message is clear: teenagers who engage in premarital sex are risking both their lives and their bodies. If either parents or children fail in this crucial endeavor, educators warn, disaster is sure to follow. But by claiming that the Bible supports their point of view, these educators are selling both kids and their parents a bill of goods. As this chapter shows, passages celebrating sexual pleasure outside the bonds of marriage can be found within the Bible and, remarkably, no one dies.
The Song of Songs, an ancient biblical love poem that speaks frankly of towering breasts, flowing black locks, kissable lips, and the joy of sexual fulfillment, offers a particularly striking example of this phenom- enon, but other biblical passages are nearly as forthright. The love between Naomi and Ruth is paralleled by the devotion of Jonathan to David, a friendship so strong that Jonathan comes to love David more than he loved women. The child of their adultery dies, but Bathsheba later becomes pregnant with Solomon, the famously wise king and the purported author of the Song.
In these biblical passages, sexual longing refuses to be limited to the love between a husband and wife, or even between a man and a woman. Hoping to find him again, she searches throughout the city, faint with love, only to be beaten and wounded for her pains. Reunited, the man caresses her with his gaze from her san- daled feet to her purple tresses, describing her thighs, navel, breasts, and neck. Pledging her love in return, the woman promises spiced wine and strong scents, warm embraces in a budding vineyard, and the juice of her own pomegranates.
At the close of the poem, she calls to him again, her desire as of yet unquenched. Modern readers are sometimes surprised that this book is canonical at all. Can a book this sexy be biblical? Surely someone tried to keep it out of the Bible! But, in fact, the Song of Songs has been among the most widely read and closely studied of all the canonical books. Copies of the Song were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, the collection of books hidden in caves in the desert outside of Jerusalem sometime before 73 CE, and it was included among the list of sacred books mentioned by an im- portant first-century Jewish historian named Josephus.
Like these earlier poems, the Song does not shrink from describing genitalia, sexual intimacy, and climax. But What Does the Song Mean? Still, the metaphorical language of the Song does not require readers to envision particular sex acts and positions. Its metaphors remain ambiguous, even as they heighten desire through text, pattern, and language, mimicking the rhythm of sexual intercourse and titillating with sensual, luxuriant imagery.
Climax is hinted at rather than described, leaving it to readers to supply what the poem refuses explicitly to reveal. And, interestingly enough, once awakened, desire—not marriage or childbearing—remains the focus. Voluntary intimacy and pleasure are the goal of these lovers, and social norms appear to be irrelevant to the delight they intend to pursue. Their involvement, even more than the speeches of the lovers, hints at the fundamentally open perspective to sexual satisfaction adopted by the Song. The lover is not a king; he is a shepherd, or a gardener.
Her daughter imagines that she will offer her home for their encounters. They serve as witnesses to her devotion and as dialogue partners regarding the nature of love. Daughters and mothers cheer the lovers on. As the poet has already intimated, however, this woman is beyond their protection, which she rejects. Male representatives of the city also try to control her. Neither her brothers nor the watchmen could keep her from her goal. The poem therefore rejects the view that men can or should control women.
It also displays no in- terest whatsoever in defending marriage as the only appropriate setting for love. Marriage is beside the point. Who Is the Man? Who Is the Woman? In addition to undermining the importance of marriage, the Song of Songs fails to meet expectations about male and female roles, exhibit- ing a remarkably open attitude toward gender.
The dialogue form of the poem introduces the phenomenon. Though it is usually possible to detect whether the poet is speaking in the voice of a man or a woman in the original Hebrew like many other languages, Hebrew nouns, pro- nouns, adjectives, and verbal forms have gender , some verses remain opaque, and so it can be difficult to discern who, exactly, is speaking. Many of these images are rooted in ancient tastes and ideals, some of which no longer resonate. These beautiful and yet strange metaphors have encouraged remark- ably creative interpretations.
So interpreted, the seductive prose of the Song was marshaled to other ends, and, in the process, it became one of the most important books of the Bible. They even argued that it was the most sacred book of all. Thierry envisioned his soul ascend- ing to the house of God, where the union of his soul with Christ could commence without restraint. Christ could switch genders and poetic roles as well. As virgin lovers of the Bridegroom, they awaited consummation in the closed garden of the convent. As beloved daughters of Christ the Mother, they received heavenly milk from his breasts.
Allegorical readings of the Bible are not as popular as they once were, and thus the playful role-switching of ancient and medieval interpreters can seem odd to readers today. Whatever this sacred poem means, whenever it was writ- ten, and whoever composed it, the Song refuses to limit human desire to marriage or even to the love between a man and a woman.
As we will see, the Song is not the only biblical text capable of entertaining the joys and possibilities of love, longing, and touch. The Song may offer the most obvious example, but other texts are nearly as stimulating. But Ruth Clung to Her: The Love Affair of Ruth and Naomi For too long, scholar Sara Ahmed has suggested, family has been envi- sioned as an achievement toward which all should aim but which, thanks to culturally informed norms and ideals, only a few can enjoy.
To the writer of Ruth, family can consist of an older woman and her beloved immigrant daughter-in-law, women can easily raise children on their own, and men can be seduced if it serves the interests of women.
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Therefore she is a Moabite, a people the Israelites were explicitly commanded elsewhere in the Bible to avoid. Described as descendants of the incestuous union of Lot and one of his daughters see Gen. The Moabites cannot be admitted into the assembly of Yhwh, Deuteronomy instructs —5 , advice that was repeated by both Ezra and Nehemiah Ezra ; Neh. According to Numbers, the Moabites seduced the Israelites into idolatry with their god Baal of Peor, resulting in the execu- tion of all the chiefs of the people by the direct order of Yhwh —5. Moab will be laid to waste, the prophet Zephaniah predicted, because they scoff at both the Lord and his people — From the perspec- tive of much of the Hebrew Bible, then, Moabites are to be avoided and shunned.
The book of Ruth, however, takes quite a different approach, and not only to Moabites. Ruth begins by reporting that, during the time of the judges, there was a famine so severe that the Judean Elimelech and his wife, Naomi, went to Moab to seek relief. Settling there, their sons, Mahlon and Chil- ion, married local women. Then, tragically, all three men died, leaving Naomi and her two daughters-in-law to fend for themselves. Then when Naomi hears that the famine has ended, she decides to return to Judah, encouraging her daughters-in-law to remain behind with their Moabite families.
They resist, and so she points out that she has no sons left for them to marry. By following Levirate marriage customs, the widows of Mahlon and Chilion might also produce heirs, continuing the family line. But, Naomi points out, she has no sons, and so both she and her daughters-in-law can have no future together. Continuing the Family Line As with the Song of Songs, it is difficult to determine precisely how to interpret this carefully constructed story.
Is the emphasis on Ruth and Naomi, their devotion to each other and the fertility of their unwavering love? These two women—one Israelite and one Moabite—arrange for the continuation of the family line first by their fierce love for each other and then by means of a daring sexual overture. According to Israelite law, the poor were permit- ted to glean fields for remaining grain after the harvest see Lev.
But when Ruth sees an opportunity to im- prove her circumstances, she takes it. Then, after sharing a meal together, he offers her even greater honor, allowing her to glean among the standing sheaves, a prac- tice she continues throughout the barley and wheat harvests. In other words, according to Levirate marriage laws, Boaz is next in line to marry Ruth. Identifying herself, Ruth requests that he spread his cloak over her, a forthright request that he take her in marriage.
He responds by prais- ing her for the steadfast love she has displayed. Did Ruth and Boaz enjoy a sexual encounter? The book closes with a reminder from the narrator that this same Obed will be the father of Jesse and the grandfather of King David. Nursing Obed The devotion of Ruth to Naomi may well be the central lesson of this story: through their love, boundaries of nation, age, and religion are crossed and a child is created who is raised not by a married couple, but by the women, including Naomi, who nurses Obed at her breast.
Ruth and Naomi are in this way the conduits of wholeness and well-being, and not only for themselves, but also for the whole community, particularly the women, who rejoice at their good fortune. Instead, they work within existing structures in surprising, bold ways, taking the initiative and working out their own destiny. Lurking behind the book of Ruth, however, is a story not only of successful female love and empowerment, but also of male-dominated property rights and inheritance.
Together the women place themselves within an established, male-led household, manipulating existing prop- erty laws in their favor, but without challenging the basic validity of these same laws.
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The book also never really undermines the secondary status of Moabites. As already noted when discussing the Song of Songs, such behavior could lead to abuse and violence against women, as the woman of the Song dis- covered when searching for her beloved in the city. Neither book limits sexual intercourse to marriage, and this book in par- ticular seems to assume that extraordinary circumstances—a famine, a childless family, and the absence of an available redeemer—justifies extraordinary measures, including sexual assertiveness on the part of women. Apart from Naomi and Ruth, there would have been no David, and their example is extolled throughout the book.
It is therefore the devotion of two women—one Israelite, one Moabite—for each other that makes Is- raelite royalty possible, and in direct violation of Israelite law. Two generations later, David will also violate social norms, first by enter- ing into a loving covenant with the son of King Saul and then by engag- ing in a seduction of his own. Like Ruth, the story of David refuses to define family as an ordered grouping of one husband, one wife, and their obedient children and, like both the book of Ruth and the Song of Songs, sex outside of marriage is not only practiced, it is encouraged.
Nevertheless, there is an obvious and over- whelming focus on King David, his rise, his exploits, and his military successes. David ascends to the throne by means of an erotic attachment to Jonathan, the son of the current king. Once on the throne, he displays his status as king by marrying the former wives of his rivals, and, when they are not enough, by initiating an adulterous affair with Bathsheba, the wife of one of his military commanders, Uriah the Hittite. When she becomes pregnant, he arranges for the death of her husband and then marries her himself.
The book of Deuteronomy may prescribe death for adulterers , but the liaison of David and Bathsheba ultimately produces the heir to the throne. He will take your daughters to be perfumers and cooks and bakers. He will take one-tenth of your grain and of your vine- yards. He will take your male and female slaves, and the best of your cattle and donkeys.
In the end, Yhwh cautions, you will be his slaves. The people, however, ignore these dangers, seeking instead a king who will protect them from other nations, particularly the Philistines. The bond between David and Jonathan is exceptionally strong, so strong that Jonathan takes off his robe, armor, sword, and bow and gives them to his friend. Their deep love and devo- tion is also hierarchical; it is Jonathan whose love for David surpassed his love of women and Jonathan who is accused by his father of an improper relationship with the charismatic David.
Some historians have resisted this interpretation. Or does it? Their love also implies that before becoming king, David, the beautiful musician and shepherd, enjoyed an intimate friendship with a man. According to this story, David enjoyed sexual satisfaction and intimate love with both his dear friend Jonathan and with his wives. All the leaders of Israel declare their loyalty to the new king, and he is installed in Jerusalem. Newly minted as king of Israel and residing in the capital city, David cements his political alliances by taking additional wives and concubines, displaying the wealth and stature befitting his new status.
One day while his troops are out battling the Ammonites, David views a beautiful woman bathing on her roof. A messenger informs him that she is already married, the wife of Uriah the Hittite, but David sends for her anyway. Lying together, she becomes pregnant, and so he calls for Uriah to return home. As we have seen, references to feet regu- larly point to sexual encounters.
This sordid tale of adultery and arranged murder complicates the por- trait of King David we have encountered thus far. Though much of 1 and 2 Samuel defends David against detractors, the adulterous liaison with Bathsheba leads inexorably to the demise of both David and his household. The love of the poor man did not prevent the rich man from exploiting his neighbor and stealing the beloved lamb, however, an action that infuriates David.
Yet, in contravention of other biblical laws, neither he nor Bathsheba is killed. In other words, according to these interpreters, Bathsheba was a will- ing and equal partner in the adultery, if not a seductive temptress who forced David to misbehave against his own interests. After all, she was a foreign woman, and foreign women cannot be trusted. In 1 and 2 Samuel, the rise of King David is therefore explained, in part, in terms of intimate friendships between men, political marriages, and sexual conquests. His mar- riage to Michal, daughter of Saul, and to the former wives of his rivals dramatizes his dominance over the men who stand in his way.
His im- proper liaison with Bathsheba, however, demonstrates that he, too, is ca- pable of betraying Yhwh, a betrayal that leads to his own unmanning in the form of the rape of his concubines by his son Absalom. Nevertheless, the royal line continued through Bathsheba and David, producing Solomon, the next king. The writers of 1 and 2 Samuel do not limit erotic entanglements to marriage or to the love be- tween a man and a woman.
They also portray David, the hero of most of the story, violating biblical laws against adultery. In these books, sex, betrayal, desire, and love are broad categories, despite the underlying as- sumption that women belong to their husbands or fathers. In the case of David, the love between two men—covenantal or erotic—turns out to be the most productive love of all. King David never even bothers to pursue marriage as commonly envisioned today. His first erotic attach- ment is to the son of the king, he marries several women, and he en- gages in an extramarital affair with the wife of his general.
In other words, when all the biblical books are taken into account, no simple mes- sage regarding the meaning and limits of desire can be found. In fact, the passages considered in this chapter suggest that nonmarital desire can be both limitless and productive. As we will see in the next chapter, however in other biblical books, desire is a matter of property rights, es- pecially the rights of men to the women and slaves in their care.
But surely marriage is more complicated than this. Certain groups have always been designated as ineligible for marriage, denied its privi- leges and its benefits. Common-law marriages and marriages between citizens and noncitizens are also recognized differently in different states, and, not too long ago, marriages between men and women of different races were patently il- legal.
Prior to , when the Supreme Court ruled that antimiscegena- tion laws are unconstitutional, twelve states outlawed marriages between whites and Native Americans, fourteen states banned white-Asian mar- riage, and many more banned white—African American marriage.
Again and again, the Bible is inserted into these discussions, just as it was in miscegenation controversies several decades ago, as if biblical teachings can solve the problem of which marriages the state should or should not recognize. This strategy needs to stop, not only because the separation of church and state is a central democratic value, but also be- cause the Bible offers no viable solution to our marriage dilemmas.
There is no such thing as a single, biblically based view of legitimate marriage.
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As we observed in the previous chapter, the assumption that women are the property of the men in their families, to be disposed of as their fathers, brothers, and husbands see fit, informs much of biblical literature. The Song of Songs reacts against this assumption by refusing to limit sexual desire to marriage, even for the woman. By contrast, both the book of Ruth and the story of David presuppose that, in the end, the point of marriage and family is to continue the male line. Biblical marriage law is even more emphatic: women belong to men; male honor is tied, in part, to how well men supervise the women in their care; and men demonstrate their wealth and success by the number of le- gitimate wives and children they are able to acquire.
Though the practice of polygamy disappears from later biblical writings, the view that men are supposed to control their wives, whom they own, does not. New Testa- ment writings often adopt this same perspective, but with a proviso: though marriage is acceptable, celibacy is even better. Adjusting previous teachings regarding marriage and family, Jesus and his followers emphasize not mar- riage, property, and genealogical relationships but the sexual self-control that comes with faith in Christ.