Manual Environmental Systems Studies: A Macroscope for Understanding and Operating Spaceship Earth

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  1. CO Meeting Organizer EGU
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In a world that is in chaos politically, socially and environmentally, how can the human race sustain another years? Das Projekt erforscht, in welcher Weise die Idee und Technik des "Life Support" sowohl die Lebensbedingungen in Raumlaboren als auch die Wahrnehmung des endlich gedachten irdischen Lebensraumes ausrichtete. Jahrhundert vor.

The volume was published by Campus. Review by Daniel Speich in Sehepunkte 5 , No. The Principle of Direct Echo Sounding. Source: G. Deutschen Geographentages zu Breslau vom 2. Juni , "Verhandlungen des Deutschen Geographentages", Vol. This project investigated the scientific and technological conceptualization and colonization of oceanic space in 19th and 20th-century oceanography. Addressing the question how the oceans from plane surfaces changed into volumes of evident spatial dimensions, sounded and charted in processes of deep-sea research, the project sought to contribute to current approaches to the history of spaces as objects as well as effects of scientific knowledge production.

Moreover, it aimed at providing new insights to the question of the scientific and technological perception and representation of abstract spatial entities denying access through direct observation. Starting point was the international onset and organization of oceanographic research projects, which explored the deep sea from onward as part of the imperial ventures of their time.

The aim was to show how, in the course of a century, the opaque ocean of the mid 19th century was densely depicted in physical terms and transformed into a technically and scientifically sound oceanic volume.

CO Meeting Organizer EGU

Perceived through remote investigation, ocean space had to be based on an archival construction, that is, on information accumulating in a combination of conceptual, pictorial, and technological depth performance. Single measurements were arranged into profiles and contour line charts. In a first step, the fabrication of ocean space was investigated focusing on the wire sounding routines of oceanographic expeditions.

The project explored how depth became a matter of scientific definitions, systematic measurements, and graphic representations. Resembling a narrated or written story, the argument was that the texture of ocean depth depended on the richness and coherence of its plots. In a second step, the project attended to the beginning of intensive oceanographic research initiated in the s by the "German Atlantic Expedition" , one of the prestigious projects of the "Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft", the German association promoting the sciences after World War I.

The expedition aboard the Meteor became famous for systematically sounding and charting a large part of the South Atlantic Ocean's floor. Also, it was the first expedition to make extensive and systematic use of the technology of acoustic sounding. Whereas oceanographers' use of line and lead had depended on the solidity of physical, tactile reaching to the ground, taking bottom samples and measuring the length of paid out wire, acoustic sounding instruments developed after the First World War materialized the oceanic volume differently. Relying crucially on the water volume as a body of acoustic properties, echo time measurement provided a means of multiplying the number of deep-sea echo soundings to quasi-infinite density: sounding frequency became the measure of space gained.

Focusing on two examples of the Meteor's depth charts, the profile and the bathymetric chart, the project argued that these visualizations of ocean depth not only claimed to be evidence of Germany's unbroken scientific excellence; they also acquired symbolic meaning within the German after-war struggles to regain lost colonial territory. The depth profiles and charts created public space for the revaluation of the German nation by visually constituting a new spatial realm of German influence.

Coherent and authentic pictures developed from single depth measurements allowed for conceptualizing the abstract data volume of oceanographic space in terms of newly procured national grounds. The Ascend of the "Humboldt" on March 1, Schall , insertion between pp. Mythen, semiotische Konstruktionen wie kulturell tradierte Narrationen, formulieren "Wahrheiten" und konstruieren sie zugleich wirksam.

Buckminster Fuller at MIT - Spaceship Earth - 1979

Flugmetaphern und -phantasien in Kunst und Literatur der Jahrhundertwende werden mit den technischen Luftfahrtkonstruktionen sowie der entstehenden Luftfahrtforschung konfrontiert. This study was published by Campus. Research www. Links This page contains links to other websites.

The primary focus is on the question of what is the human, and what are its relations to others. Cognitive Science and philosophy of mind: Epistemic and metaphysical issues of mind in Cognitive science. Western theories of mind: Dualism, behaviorism, materialism, eliminativism functionalism, physicalism, phenomenology, representational theory of mind, modularity of mind and identity theory.

Neurobiological approaches to mind: Patricia Churchland arguments, the binding problem, the problem of Mary's Knowledge, Connectionism. Computational approaches to mind: Searle's Chinese room argument, intentionality, the problem of intelligence and the representational nature of mind. This course analyzes sociological and cultural aspects of aging from a life course perspective. The course will adopt an intersectional and interdisciplinary approach to examine questions of gender, the body, family, identity, social practices, medical and legal discourses surrounding aging.

Specific topics include: Theorizing aging across disciplines history, demography, economics, anthropology and feminist studies ; cultural representations of age and aging body, self-image advertising, consumer culture and ageism ; family structure and intergenerational relationships social networks, caregiving and grand parenting ; later life in a transnational era questions of identity, ethnicity, nation and transnationalism ; the politics of aging; and social policy.

This course draws on medical anthropology, public health and development literature to examine the relationship between disease, health and inequality. In particular, the course will begin with a discussion on the links between science and colonialism and subsequently move on to more contemporary debates on the inequalities of disease, suffering and infections e. The course will conclude with an examination of medicalized resistance to power and health as a human right. The course is structured around a cluster of ideas and concepts that humanity through centuries has reflected upon through centuries.

Its purpose is to discuss ruminations by thinkers across time and space to explore how pluralistic viewpoints and concepts have shaped human life and society. This excavating nature of the course, it is hoped, will also ensure that no one single society or civilization is privileged as the centre of intellectual and metaphysical thought. While its possible that some discussion would be situated in modernity, the purpose is to focus on universal themes such as : Truth; Identity; Silence; Myth; Experience.

Environmental Systems Studies

Introduction to neo classical theories of development. Concepts of economic growth, socioeconomic inequality, human capital, quality of life and deprivation; Measures of development- Economic: income, and poverty, Health: Life expectancy, child mortality, disease burden and malnutrition, Education indicators: Gross Enrollment Ratio GER , dropout rate and school life expectancy, Gender: gender disparity indicators in education and health.

Inequality measures: Gini, Atkinson and Simpson index. Rights based approaches to social deliverables such as education, health, and nutrition. Links between governance and human development, role of state like legislative, judiciary and executive in framing policies, and role of civil societies and media. Central India-Bagh, Udayagiri.

Western India-Junagrh, Talaja. The course aims at emphasizing the division between public and academic perceptions and constructions of citizenship and human rights grounded on an anthropological approach. These topis will be illustrated in different societies from the viewpoint of disadvantaged people and social groups such as migrants, refugees, exiles, homeless, dispossessed.

India will be taken as a reference and the students will be stimulated to carry out fieldwork at the margins of the social structure. Euro and ethnocentrism will be criticized. This course will introduce students to conceptual issues concerning protest history or the history of dissent in India and other parts of the world in the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The purpose of the course is to understand the constitutive factors determining different modes of protest. The course will pick and choose from a wide variety of movements such as the French Revolution, the Revolt of , some of the nationalist movements that took place in Europe during this period, the nationalist movements in India led by the Indian National Congress and the numerous peasant and 'tribal' rebellions of the colonial period in India.

The course will also discuss other modes of protest which have been equally and perhaps more effective at times than direct action in resisting subjection and bringing about change. Students will be exposed to conceptual issues such as the socio-political factors determining specific modes of protests, the role of the mob in a movement, the question of 'agency' or autonomy of marginalized groups in interpreting and changing their conditions and so on. The focus of the course may vary from year to year. However the emphasis will be mostly on protests by peasants, forest dwellers, factory workers, migrants and indigenous and colonized peoples.

This class addresses the growing need for international exchanges around culture and the aesthetic dimensions of intercultural engagement. From initial or exploratory self-revealing narratives of the individual, the class moves on into the more formal analysis of various global texts from Aeschylus to the Puranas.

This class is designed to contextualize the personal narratives of students in a pro-active search for an authentic voice mediated by the ancient ground of global narratives. This graduate level course will focus on the competing definitions and paradigms of globalization, drawing from a variety of disciplines including sociology, economics, political science and culture studies. It will include discussions on global production networks, development debates, role of global governance institutions and global inequalities. In addition, the course will analyze sources, consequences and modalities of transnational migrations and related issues of identity, belonging, citizenship and diaspora, with particular attention to how definitions of gender and sexuality are reproduced, deployed and negotiated in these processes.

Overall, the course is open to myriad forms of economic, social and cultural globalization in our times. This is designed as a foundational course for those intarested in research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. It is meant to familiarize students with a broad range of methods and analytical tools commonly employed in research in these fields.

The course has been divide into two broad componants- Quantitative and Qualitative Methods. In Quantitative Methods, students will be taught how to conduct quantitative studies with a focus on understanting research questions, conceptual models, counterfactual causal theory, confounding, mediation, modaration, measurement scale development study designs, and threats to validity of causal interence.

In the Qualitative segment, the focus will be primarily on Ethnographic and interpretive Methods and Historical Research and Cultural Analyses. In the first part i. In Historical Research and Cultural Analyses, on the other hand, students will be taught some basic conceptual and methodological issues pertaining to the historical discipline. The primary focus will be on themes such as the ways and means of dealing with objects from the past, the manner of conducting archival research, various orders of evidence, the usefulness and methods for studying orality and memory and the cultural significance of objects and images as well as the methods of using these as source materials for historical enquiry.

In this course students will critically read and comment on selected readings from recent scholarship focused on understanding Indian modes of thought and ways of being before the full-fledged entrenchment of British colonialism. Readings will focus on cultural transformations relating to the production of regional literatures, the interactions of multiple religious traditions, mobility of social groups and the disintegration of centralized modesof governance among others.

Introduction to the research process — initial observation, generating theory, generating and testing hypothesis; Experimental designs — translating a research question into a research design, introduction to some popular methodologies and designs like the factorial design, quasi xperimental design and functional designs; Statistics — how do we know what the data holds; exploring relationships and differences; Ethical concerns — using human participants; deception in psychological testing. This course brings together imaginations in and about India from different regions and eras. Intended to be an in-depth study of literature as both narrative artifacts as well sociohistorical documents, the course is a detailed study of fiction from languages and regions as varied as Assamese and Malayalam, Bengali and Telugu, Hindi and Tamil.

This wide gamut of fiction is available to us in English translation. The instrutor will collaborate with doctoral students in understanding the texts, the contexts that produce them and also the language politics that surround the translation of these texts. Of the many texts that from a part of this course, some are U. This course will explore representations of Indian society and culture through a variety of Indian English and Bengali texts in translation.

The special emphasis will be on an overlapping and intersecting body of texts written in the two languages. It will engage in critical and analytical thinking, and will examine the different elements that comprise fictional writings. It will also examine the various styles, trends and critical approaches to literature. This course will introduce students to theoretical perspectives that explain the distribution and determinants of disease in society.

The focus will be on the application of these theories to understand the impact of social determinants of health. History of public health; development of theories of disease distribution; historical and political influences on development of theoretical perspectives; ancient theories of health; traditional epidemiological models; individual-level health behaviour theories and models; social-ecological model; psychosocial theories; social production of disease political economy of health ; ecosocial theory; importance of theory; application of social epidemiological theories to disease distribution; implications for health policy.

This course aims to introduce students to the essential theoretical tools and frameworks used in the social sciences and humanities. This is done by examining key theoretical concepts in understanding society and culture such as: state and power; conceptions of community; modernity and post-colonialism; culture and representation. Understanding the modern state: its changing nature and relationship with the individual, society and market; Power: how it relates to coercion, authority and resistance; interrogating conceptions of community — class, caste and gender: the value of theorizing each of these specific concepts and how they intersect with each other.

What is modernity? How does modernity impinge upon political structures, social processes, and aesthetics?

Post-colonialism: the critique of hegemonic forms of knowledge production and the value of subaltern perspectives, Culture: understanding its meaning and using this framework to examine identity and difference, discourse, symbols and texts. This course will cover a whole range of issues from Archaeology to Ethnography of use of stone, ceramic and glass in pre-modern India.

This course is going to alert students to the contextual nature of technologies and how different societies respond to different needs within the environmental, material and cultural constraints. This course will also involve a number of experimental studies and visit to the surviving traditional industries. History of Ancient Indian technology; Surviving traditional technologies in India; Raw materials used in Palaeolithic Technology: Rocks; Palaeolithic Technology: Evolution of stone tools through time; Stone working: Stone objects grinding stone, beads etc. Improving key performance indicators of financial and operational performance of a company.

Customer satisfaction through ISO standards, regulatory compliance and continuous improvement. Facets of Engineering: What is the purpose of engineering? Paradox of Democrace: What is the purpose of democracy? Portrait of a virtuous engineer: common grounds between Democracy and Engineering for technical progress and social justice; human use of engineering and democracy; the challenges of the Indian context. Intellectual independence: Reorganization of knowledge in Information Age; opportunity for newly independent countries like India; capturing the intellectual vibrancy of Indian freedom struggle; inspiration from the makers of modern India, orienting engineering for Social Minimum.

Overview of the evolution of science and technology in Mesopotamia; ancient Egypt; ancient Greece; ancient China; B Overview of the evolution of science and technology in India from Neolithic to Vedic and Harappan times; in pre-classical times; in the classical or Siddhantic age; in medieval times; Other Indian knowledge systems. Progress and Entropy: Views of Norbert Wiener; a. Fundamentals of Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology; Structure and Regulation of Genes; Structure and Function of Proteins; How DNA, Proteins, and different units combine together to integrate into cells; How the cells integrate into multicellular systems and organisms; Concepts in population biology: principles of macro- and microevolution, population genetics, and population dynamics; Role of an engineer in Biology.

Structure of nucleic acids, Transcription, Translation, DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination; Gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes, regulatory sequences, activators, repressors, regulation of transcription factors, elongation and termination of transcription; Post-transcriptional gene control, Processing of pre-mRNA and regulation, transport of mRNA and degradation.

Fundamentals of recombinant DNA technology, Cloning vectors, Genetic transformation of prokaryotes, PCR technologies, sequencing techniques; Prokaryotic gene expression systems, fusion proteins constructs, Fungus based expression systems, Insect cell expression systems, Mammalian cell expression systems; Directed mutagenesis and protein engineering; Synthesis of commercial products such as small biological molecules, antibiotics and biopolymers by recombinant microorganisms.

Advanced themes that are an integral part of a modern Biological Engineering graduate program will be explored in detail, both in class via lectures and in the laboratory. Importance of cellular communication illustrated using some classic pathways GPCR, Ras-MAPK etc as examples; How signal transduction cascades are affected by disease states various cancers, cardiovascular problems etc ; Drug discovery in the context of signaling pathways wherein knowledge of the players of a specific signaling pathway has helped design drugs Eg: Gleevac.

Muscle Physiology structure of skeletal muscles, sliding filament theory of muscle contraction, simple muscle mechanics, force-length and force-velocity relationships 2. Motor units and electromyography fast and slow motor units, Henneman principle, functional roles of motor units, recording and processing of electromyographic signals 3.

Spinal control of movement monosynaptic and polysnaptic reflexes 4. Voluntary control of a single muscle feedforward and feedback control, servo control, servo hypothesis, equilibrium point hypothesis 5. Voluntary control of single joint movements isotonic movements and isometric contractions, kinematic and EMG profiles of single joint movements, dual-strategy hypothesis 6. Cortical and subcortical control roles of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum in motor control, activity in these structures before and during movement assessed by means of single cell recordings, neuroanatomical tracing, neuroimaging methods 7.

Ascending and Descending Pathways Dorsal column pathway, spinocervical, spintothalamic, spinocerebellar, spinoreticular, pyramidal, rubrospinal, vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts 8. Control and coordination of multijoint movements merging neurophysiology with control, force control hypothesis, generalized motor programs, internal models, equilibrium point control. Linear Programming: convex polyhedra and linear programming; simplex method, two-phase method; revised simplex method; Karmarker method; duality; Geometric Concepts: hyperplane, convex set, convex hull, Caratheodory theorem; separating and supporting hyperplane; cones and polars sets; Convex Optimization: convex functions and their variants; subgradients, tangent and normal cones, Fritz John and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions; Quadratic programming; Penalty and barrier function methods, nonconvex optimization.

Variational methods: minimization of functionals, the Palais-Smale condition, the deformation lemma, multiplicity of critical points, Mountain pass theorem, Lyusternik-Schnirelmann theorem. Linear Algebra: Vectors in Rn; Vector subspaces of Rn; Basis of vector subspace; Systems of Linear equations; Matrices and Gauss elimination; Determinants and rank of a matrix; Abstract vector spaces, Linear transformations, Matrix of a linear transformation, Change of basis and similarity, Rank-nullity theorem; Inner product spaces, Gram-Schmidt process, Orthonormal bases; Projections and least-squares approximation; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Characteristic polynomials, Eigenvalues of special matrices; Multiplicity, Diagonalization, Spectral theorem, Quadratic forms.

Metric spaces: Convergence and completeness, Uniform continuity and compactness, Baire category theorem and Ascoli-Arzela theorem, Banach's fixed point theorem and its applications; Normed linear spaces: Finite dimensional normed spaces, Heine-Borel theorem, Riesz lemma; Continuity of linear maps, Hahn-Banach extension theorem; Banach spaces, Dual spaces and transposes; Uniform-boundedness principle and its applications; Spectrum of a bounded operator; Inner product spaces: Hilbert spaces, orthonormal basis, projection theorem and Riesz representation theorem.

Inversion of Laplace transforms. Calculus of Variations: Euler-Lagrange equation, Generalizations of the basic problem. Quotient topology, Identification spaces; The fundamental group: Homotopy of maps, multiplication of paths, the fundamental group, induced homomorphisms, the fundamental group of the circle, covering spaces, lifting theorems, the universal covering space, Seifert-Van Kampen theorem, applications; Simplicial Complexes, Simplicial and Singular homology - Definitions, Properties and Applications.

Laboratory Component Each Module consists of a mini project component involving numerical computation and analysis of a concrete problem. Arithmetical functions and Dirichlet multiplication, big oh notation, Euler's summation formula, average order of some arithmetical functions, summation by parts, Chebyshev's functions, the Prime Number Theorem, Dirichlet characters, Gauss sums, Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions, Introduction to the theory of the Riemann zeta function, zero-free regions for zeta s.

Review of Linear Algebra: Vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization; Inner product spaces, Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization, spectral theorem for real symmetric matrices. Nonlinear systems: qualitative approach; linearization. Series solutions of differential equations: Frobenius method, equations of Legendre and Bessel. Sturm-Liouville problems: orthogonality of eigenfunctions and eigenfunction expansions. Fourier series, Fourier integrals and Fourier transforms: basic results. Partial Differential Equations: Classification of linear second order PDEs in two variables; Modeling: vibrating string, heat conduction; solutions using Fourier series, Fourier integrals and Fourier transforms.

Interpolation and Approximation of functions. Similiarity Transformations, Diagonalisation. Schur Decomposition QR algorithm. Linear Systems. Krylov Sequence Methods. Krylov Subspaces. Arnoldi Decompositions. Optimization Methods in multi-dimensions. Conjugate Gradient Method and Preconditioned variants as iterative schemes for sparse linear systems. Nonlinear Equations. Computational Lab projects on all serial and parallel computer architectures. A quick review of analysis of several variables, The Alternating Algebra: Multilinear maps, Alternating multilinear maps, Exterior product.

Differential forms: Exterior derivative, Pull-back of forms. Design of mechanical components, sub-systems focusing on a project integrating design and manufacturing in a complete year-long Group Design Projects in Design-Test-Build mode. Intellectial Property Rights and Patenting.

Turbulent Flows. RANS, Reynolds stress. Wall bounded and free shear flows. Some insight into current activities for turbulence modeling. Prandtl and Nusselt number correlations; Derivation of differential and integral energy equation. Thermal boundary layer; Analogy between heat and momentum transfer. Similarity and integral solutions for vertical plate; Free convection for other cases; Mixed convection. Heat Exchangers.

Introduction to boiling and condensation;. Radiative Heat Transfer, Black body radiation. Planck, Wien and Stefan-Boltzmann laws. Irradiation; Heat exchange between two surfaces. Compressible Flow. Wave propagation speed in ideal gas. Stagnation pressure and temperature. Isentropic Flow. Normal Shocks and Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. Compressible frictionless flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle. Flows in pipes with heat transfer and with friction. Oblique shock waves. Prandtl-Meyer Expansion. Notions of Compressible Boundary Layers. High Resolution Shock Capturing Schemes.

Riemann Solvers. Approximate Riemann Solvers. TVD Schemes etc. Introduction to Mechanisms. Classification of Links and Joints. Kinematic Drawing of Mechanisms. Grashof condition for Fourbar linkages. Cam Follower Mechanisms. CAM Design. Gears and Gear Trains. Belts, Chains and Sprockets. Static and Dynamic Analysis of Mechanisms. Lab Work: A few structured experiments on four bar linkages, QR mechanism, CAMs and Gears plus new experiments and computer modelling in support of the theory and perform group mechanism design projects targeted at Mechanism Design Contests.

Lab Work: 1 hour Lab for 10 weeks where students explore structured experiments using MatLab and computer modelling in support of the theory and perform group vehicle design projects. Review of linear vibration theory with applications to automotive systems; Role of Vehicle Dynamics and Chassis Systems in passenger cars; Equations of motion for steady state and transient vibration conditions; Vibration models of a typical passenger car; Load distribution, stability on a curved track slope and a banked road, calculation of tractive effort and reactions for different drives; Fundamentals of suspension tires and vehicle handling; Identification of vehicle parameters related to vehicle dynamics and chassis systems; vehicle performance under braking and drive-off or accelerating conditions; Braking performance; Fundamentals of ride and handling; Fundamentals of cornering; Fundamentals of steering systems and rollover fundamentals.

Launch Vehicles and Missiles Guidance: Launch vehicles trajectory dynamics; Ascent Guidance; Re-entry Flight Mechanics; Missile guidance; Lambert guidance; strategic intercepts; zero-effort-miss guidance; cruise missiles. Satellite Orbits and Ground Coverage: Orbital dynamics; Orbit perturbations: Orbital manoeuvres; Earth coverage with remote sensing low-earth and high-earth orbit satellites; imaging from space; space-based radars; lunar and interplanetary flights: Chandrayan and Mars mission. Spacecraft Attitude Dynamics and Control: Three-axis Spacecraft attitude dynamics; quaternions; multi-body spacecraft with articulated antennas, and solar arrays; reaction wheels, thrusters, magnets, control moment gyros; three-axis large angle manoeuvres; attitude determination techniques and sensors; Flexible spacecraft dynamics and control; spin-stabilized spacecraft control; dual-spin stabilization; bias momentum spacecraft dynamics and control using two momentum wheels, magnets, and thrusters; Reaction jet attitude control and nonlinear controllers; control of spacecraft with liquid propellants: sloshing and structure control interaction.

Introduction to combustion, importance, applications, engineering issues; Laws of thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium, adiabatic flame temperature; Fundamentals of mass transfer, species conservation equation, Stefan problem, droplet vaporization; Gas kinetic theory, elementary and global reactions, reaction mechanisms, reaction rates, steady-state and partial equilibrium approximations; Hydrogen oxidation; Carbon monoxide oxidation; Hydrocarbon oxidation; Basic chemical reactors, constant pressure and constant volume reactors, well-stirred reactor, plug-flow reactor; Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations; Laminar premixed flames, flame speed, flame thickness, flame speed measurement, ignition, quenching, flammability, flame stabilization; Laminar non-premixed flames, jet flames, counterflow diffusion flames; Droplet vaporization and combustion; Solid particle combustion.

Conservation of mass, momentum and balance of energy in differential and integral forms; Forced convection external flows, boundary layer equations: differential and integral techniques; high speed flows; internal flows; developing and fully developed flows; natural convection, boiling and condensation. Review of the governing equations of compressible flow and Thermodynamic concepts.

Forms of energy equation for compressible flow. Wave propagation speed in ideal gases. Isentropic flow. Stagnation Flow Properties. Critical Flow Properties. Compressible frictionless flow in a shock tube and variable area ducts based on one-dimensional Euler Equations. Expansion Waves. Prandtl-Meyer Function. Shock-Expansion Theory for external compressible flow past bodies. Conical Flows. Internal compressible flow in constant area and variable area ducts with heat transfer and with friction leading to notions of Rayleigh and Fanno Flows.

Combustion Waves.

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Condensation Shocks. Compressible Potential Flow Theory. Vorticity considerations. Notions of compressible velocity potential. Development of low-order compressible flow models for high speed flows based on linearized small-disturbance potential flow theory for subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows. Similarity Rules. Regarding air-sea interactions, we seek studies that analyse the local to regional scales, and those discussing the conditions under which they may lead to a large-scale atmospheric response.

Surface wind modulations, Madden-Julian Oscillation, cyclones, and convective systems, as well as scale interactions are welcome. In the extra-tropics, we seek also contributions on the role of extra-tropical fronts in regional and large-scale atmospheric circulation. We welcome contributions on how the air-sea interactions may shape modes of climate variability and determine regional climate sensitivity.

The understanding of tropical phenomena and their representation in numerical models still raise important scientific and technical questions, particularly in the coupling between the dynamics and diabatic processes. Among these phenomena, tropical cyclones TC are of critical interest because of their societal impacts and because of uncertainties in how their characteristics cyclogenesis processes, occurrence, intensity, latitudinal extension, translation speed will change in the framework of global climate change. The monitoring of TCs, their forecasts at short to medium ranges, and the prediction of TC activity at extended range days and seasonal range are also of great societal interest.

The aim of the session is to promote discussions between scientists focusing on the physics and dynamics of tropical phenomena. This session is thus open to contributions on all aspects of tropical meteorology between the convective and planetary scale, such as: - Tropical cyclones, - Convective organisation, - Diurnal variations, - Local circulations i. We especially encourage contributions of observational analyses and modelling studies of tropical cyclones and other synoptic-scale tropical disturbances including the physics and dynamics of their formation, structure, and intensity, and mechanisms of variability of these disturbances on intraseasonal to interannual and climate time scales.

Clouds are a key component of the climate system, and the numerical models we use to predict future climate change do not reproduce them well. Our inability to simulate clouds stems from a poor process-level understanding, and there is a large community of scientists focusing on using high resolution models to understand clouds on a microphysical scale.

This session aims to showcase the latest advances in cloud modelling, providing a forum for discussions between scientists using various cloud process modelling techniques. Submissions using bin or bulk microphysics schemes, modelling clouds from stratocumulus to cumulonimbus, are encouraged.

In this session, we welcome submissions concerning: Improved process understanding from high resolution modelling New parameterisation developments e. Clouds and aerosols play a key role in climate and weather-related processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

An initial forcing due to changes in the aerosol concentration and composition may also be enhanced or dampened by feedback processes such as modified cloud dynamics, surface exchange or atmospheric circulation patterns. This session aims to link research activities in observations and modelling of radiative, dynamical and microphysical processes of clouds and aerosols and their interactions.

Studies addressing several aspects of the aerosol-cloud-radiation-precipitation system are encouraged. The southeast Atlantic off the African south western coast is the location for interactions between aerosols, clouds, and radiation ultimately affecting climate. A wide-spread stratocumulus cloud deck is a permanent feature in this region shaping the regional radiation budget, the local water budget through the formation of coastal fog, and potentially the global climate.

Aerosols from multiple sources, including biomass and fuel burning, mineral dust, and marine, emitted or transported below or above the cloud deck, can significantly change the microphysical and radiative properties of the clouds. Currently these processes are poorly understood, which is reflected in the diversity of model simulation results of radiative forcing.

Studies that present new observations and modelling of the aforementioned properties, interactions and implications over the southeast Atlantic and adjacent continental regions are solicited. The session is addressed to experimentalists and modellers working on land surface fluxes from local to regional scales.

The programme is open to a wide range of new studies in micrometeorology. The topics include the development of new devices, measurement techniques and experimental design methods, as well as novel findings on surface layer theory and parametrization at the local scale.

Undergraduate Subjects

The theoretical parts encompass soil-vegetation-atmosphere transport, internal boundary-layer theories and flux footprint analyses, etc.. Of special interest are comparisons of experimental data, parametrizations and models. This includes energy and trace gas fluxes inert and reactive as well as water, carbon dioxide and other GHG fluxes. Specific focus is given to outstanding problems in land surface boundary layer descriptions such as complex terrain, energy balance closure, stable stratification and night time fluxes, as well as to the dynamic interactions with atmosphere, plants in canopy and above canopy and soils including the scale problems in atmosphere and soil exchange processes.

It is in this context that this session invites theoretical, numerical and observational studies ranging from fundamental aspects of atmospheric turbulence, to parameterizations of the boundary layer, and to renewable energy or air pollution applications. Changes in the Arctic and Antarctic climate systems are strongly related to processes in the boundary layer and their feedbacks with the free troposphere. An adequate understanding and quantification of these processes is necessary to improve predictions of future changes in the polar regions and their teleconnections with mid-latitude weather and climate, including meridional transport of heat, moisture and air pollutants.

Processes include atmosphere-ocean-ice AOI interactions, such as physical and chemical snow processes e. AOI interactions are also triggered by and have feedbacks with synoptic systems and mesoscale weather phenomena such as cold air outbreaks, katabatic winds and polar lows.

Associated processes also include the effect of warm air advection and clouds on the surface energy budget and related boundary layer exchanges. Of increasing interest is the study of extremes such as heat waves and storms, but also extreme meridional transport events that can disturb the physical and chemical state of the high latitudes and may have a large impact on ecosystem changes. In addition, Arctic boundary-layer processes play an important role for local Arctic air pollution and for the health and ecosystem impacts thereof.

In addition, understanding natural processes including AOI interactions is essential to understand of the background atmosphere to quantify the anthropogenic impacts. Shallow inversions, mostly during winter-time, lead to high air pollutant concentrations. Even though severe air pollution episodes are frequently observed in the Arctic, knowledge on urban emission sources and atmospheric chemical processing of pollution, especially under cold and dark conditions, are poorly understood. We invite contributions e. Observations and research on the energy balance, physical and chemical exchange processes, and atmosphere-ocean-ice AOI interactions including particle sources.

Results from high-elevation sites where similar processes occur over snow and ice. Field programs, laboratory studies and observational studies including remote sensing. Model studies and reanalyses. Advances in observing technology. External controls on the boundary layer such as clouds, aerosols, radiation.

Teleconnections between the polar regions and mid-latitudes resulting in effects related to atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions as well as insights provided by monitoring of water vapor isotopes that shed light on air mass origins. High-latitude urban air quality studies. Physical processes of Air-Sea Interaction and their representation This session aims at fostering exchanges and discussions on the physical processes at work at the air-sea interface, their observation, and their representation in coupled numerical models.

Examples of such processes are sun-induced diurnal warming and rain-induced cool and fresh lenses, as well as gustiness associated with atmospheric boundary layer thermals or moist convection and cold pools induced by rain evaporation. Surface temperature and salinity fronts, oceanic meso- and sub-mesoscale dynamics are also of great interest. This session is thus intended for i contributions presenting observational or theoretical aspects of the processes described above and their impact on energy and water exchanges at the interface, and ii contributions focusing on the mathematical and algorithmic methods used to represent these processes in coupled ocean-atmosphere models.

This session also aims to gather studies using numerical models of any level of complexity from highly idealized to realistic and any resolution from Large Eddy Simulation LES to global circulation models.

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Studies describing the impact of the air-sea interaction physical processes on the mean global or regional climates and variability representation are also welcome. We invite presentations on ocean surface waves: their dynamics, modelling and applications. Wind-generated waves are a large topic of the physical oceanography in its own right, but it is also becoming clear that many large-scale geophysical processes are essentially coupled with the surface waves, and those include climate, weather, tropical cyclones, Marginal Ice Zone and other phenomena in the atmosphere and many issues of the upper-ocean mixing below the interface.

This is a rapidly developing area of research and geophysical applications, and contributions on wave-coupled effects in the lower atmosphere and upper ocean are strongly encouraged. The multitude of processes of various scales occurring simultaneously under strong winds in the air and sea boundary layers presents a true challenge for nonlinear science. We welcome theoretical, experimental and numerical works on all aspects of processes in turbulent boundary layers above and below the ocean surface.

Although we are particularly interested in the processes and phenomena occurring under strong wind conditions, the works concerned with similar processes under weaker winds which might provide an insight for rough seas are also welcomed. We are also very interested in works on remote sensing of these processes. Relevant nonlinear biological phenomena are also welcomed.

The main aims of the session is to initiate discussion of the multitude of processes active under strong winds across the narrow specializations as a step towards creating an integrated picture. Theoretical, numerical, experimental and observational works are welcomed. The energy of a closed system is steady.

It is not lost but rather converted into other forms, such as when kinetic energy is transferred into thermal energy. However, this fundamental principle of natural science is often still a problem for climate research. For example, in case of the calculation of ocean currents and circulation, where small-scale vortices as well as diapycnal mixing and the deep convection processes they induce, need to be considered, to compute how heat content is redistributed along the entire water column and how such processes may change in the future.

Similarly, in the atmosphere, the conversion of available potential energy into kinetic energy is the key driver of atmospheric dynamics at a variety of scales, from the zonal-mean general circulation to mesoscale convection. Local turbulent processes can drive larger movements and waves on a larger scale can disintegrate into small structures. How exactly the energy transfers between waves, eddies, local turbulence and mixing in the ocean and the atmosphere works, often remains unclear. This session wants to discuss this by inviting contributions from oceanographers, meteorologists, climate modelers, and mathematicians.

We are particularly interested in coupled atmosphere-ocean studies, we are also aiming at filling a knowledge gap on deep ocean processes, as well as novel subgrid-scale parameterizations, and studies of the energy budget of the complex Earth system, including the predictability of the global oceanic thermohaline circulation and thus climate variability. Aerosol particles are key components of the earth system important in radiative balance, human health, and other areas of key societal concern.

Understanding their formation, evolution and impacts relies on developments from multiple disciplines covering both experimental laboratory work, field studies and numerical modelling. In this general session all topics of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics are covered. Contributions from aerosol laboratory, field, remote sensing and model studies are all highly encouraged. As in previous years, this year the session will dedicate some of its time to focus on a hot topic which this year is aerosol volatility.

Despite significant advances in experimental techniques, it is still thought that an incomplete understanding of factors that dictate gas-particle partitioning remains one of the major uncertainties in predicting atmospheric aerosol concentrations, composition, life-time and subsequent impacts. With this in mind, aside from general submissions on aerosol research, we encourage contributions from work within the broad focus of aerosol volatility.

Atmospheric aerosol-cloud-climate interactions e. Despite the importance of these processes in energy transfer, cloud dynamics, precipitation formation, and hence in climate change, little is known about the molecular mechanism and the respective contribution of different structural and chemical surface properties of the atmospheric aerosols and ice nuclei controlling these processes in the atmosphere.

For example, observation of atmospheric ice nucleation has bridged the scales from macroscopic to microscopic levels satellites, balloons, mountain stations, flight campaigns, and laboratory measurements and has delivered a wide variety of important results in cloud microphysics, particularly concerning the ice nucleation ability of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, fundamental understanding of the cloud dynamics and properties, which play the major role in the climate system, will require the understanding of water-aerosol Surface Interactions.

To advance our knowledge about atmospheric processes, this session aims to bring together experimental and theoretical approaches concerned with investigating water- and ice-solid interactions as well as ice nucleation processes on the molecular level. The goal is to fill the gap between the cloud and atmospheric properties and the aerosol-water surface interactions. We aim to gather contributions from laboratory and theoretical investigations that deal with the interaction of water and ice with atmospheric relevant mineral and biological surfaces. The focus is on the molecular level processes.

We discuss the origin of the interactions and their impact on our hydrosphere in general and climate in particular. Their large variability in number, size and shape makes it difficult to understand and parameterize their microphysical and hence radiative properties. To advance our understanding of these clouds, this session aims to bring together two research areas, namely 1 'Ice Clouds IC ' and 2 'Ice Nucleating Particles INP ': 1 'Ice Clouds IC ' are investigated with different approaches and methodologies: observations ground based, airborne and spaceborne , modelling process-based, regional and global as well as radiative transfer and transport studies.

We aim to gather contributions from all these aspects including dynamical influence on ice cloud formation, life cycle, coverage, microphysical and radiative properties, crystal shapes, sizes and variability of ice particles for mixed-phase as well as cirrus clouds. For characterizing INP in the atmosphere, their temperature dependent number concentrations are determined by ground based and aircraft measurements, and also remote sensing.

This session is intended to promote the exchange of knowledge between the different communities, and welcomes contributions from all topics mentioned above. Atmosphere and Cryosphere are closely linked and need to be investigated as an interdisciplinary subject. Most of the cryospheric areas have undergone severe changes in last decades while such areas have been more fragile and less adaptable to global climate changes.

This AS-CR session invites model- and observational-based investigations on any aspects of linkages between atmospheric processes and snow and ice on local, regional and global scales. Emphasis is given on the Arctic, high latitudes and altitudes, mountains, sea ice, Antarctic regions. In particular, we encourage studies that address aerosols such as Black Carbon, Organic Carbon, dust, volcanic ash, diatoms, bioaerosols, bacteria, etc.

The session also focus on dust transport, aeolian deposition, and volcanic dust, including health, environmental or climate impacts at high latitudes, high altitudes and cold Polar Regions. We emphasize contributions on biological and ecological sciences including dust-organisms interactions, cryoconites, bio-albedo, eco-physiological, biogeochemical and genomic studies.

Related topics are light absorbing impurities, cold deserts, dust storms, long-range transport, glaciers darkening, polar ecology, and more. The scientific understanding of the AS-CR interaction needs to be addressed better and linked to the global climate predictions scenarios. Aeolian processes operate at a myriad of spatial and temporal scales both on Earth and other planetary bodies. Process and form are linked by feedback mechanisms that drive the evolution of forms and at the larger scale the landscape itself.

This session brings together research traversing the spectrum of scale, from long term landscape dating and evolution modelling to small-scale process studies. It will be of interest to researchers that study wind-blown sediment both sand and dust sized particles and associated bedforms in a range of environments, from coastal and semi-arid regions, to hyper arid deserts and other planets.

Contributions that use novel instrumentation in field or laboratory studies, remote sensing at the landscape scale, innovative numerical modelling or theoretical approaches, are encouraged, particularly those which attempt to elucidate feedback between surface properties and sediment transport. The best student presentation oral or poster in this session will receive two-year ISAR membership and a book prize.

This session is the result of a merger of two sessions: Session CL4. Together, these two sessions cover a huge range of scientific disciplines that study mineral-dust generation, transport, and deposition, as well as the many roles that mineral dust plays in environmental change. The merger has resulted in a very nice set of interesting dusty abstracts covering huge ranges of spatial and temporal scales and with contributions from many scientific disciplines including atmospheric science, remote sensing, palaeo climate science, geomorphology and sedimentology but also human health and environmental science.

We look forward to an inspiring and challenging PICO session and we invite you to participate! Remote sensing of clouds and aerosols is of central importance for studying climate system processes and changes. Reliable information is required on climate-relevant parameters such as aerosol and cloud optical thickness, layer height, particle size, liquid or ice water path and vertical particulate matter columns. A number of challenges and unsolved problems remain in algorithms and their application.

This includes remote sensing of clouds and aerosols with respect to 3D effects, remote sensing of polluted and mixed clouds, combination of ground-based and satellite-based systems, and the creation of long-term uniform global records. This session is aimed at the discussion of current developments, challenges and opportunities in aerosol and cloud remote sensing using active and passive remote sensing systems. By probing the troposphere in different viewing angles and from different platforms, vertical profile information on aerosols and tropospheric trace gases, in particular NO2, can be derived.

Thereby, scattered light DOAS instruments provide an essential link between in-situ measurements of trace gas concentrations and column-integrated measurements from satellite, and thus play a key role in satellite validation. This session is open for contributions about - MAX-DOAS and other scattered light DOAS instrumentation and operation on various platforms ground-based, mobile, aircraft - trace gas retrievals - inversion algorithms - identification and treatment of clouds - comparisons to in-situ or satellite measurements and models - scientific results.

The Sentinel-5 Precursor mission, launched on Oct. The Sentinel-5 Precursor mission has successfully finalised its Commissioning Phase on April 24 It is planned that during the ramp-up phase, which has a duration of 8 months all products will be provided to the public by end Dec. Over the last years, more and more satellite data on tropospheric composition have become available and are now being used in numerous applications. In this session, we aim at bringing together reports on new or improved data products and their validation as well as studies using satellite data for applications in tropospheric chemistry, emission inversions and air quality.

This includes both studies on trace gases and on aerosols. The Middle East is home to about million people. It is endowed with about half the proven oil and gas reserves on the planet, and also has rich solar resources. The Middle East also has exceptional environmental qualities, with extensive deserts, and is among the most water-scarce regions on Earth. It is subject to dust storms and heat extremes, and in some parts photochemical air pollution is unparalleled Alizadeh-Choobari et al.

Model simulations show that climate change in the Middle East is associated with particularly rapid warming in summer, and that effectively the hot desert climate is intensifying Lelieveld et al. When the surface temperature increases over dry desert soils, relative humidity decreases, which promotes dust mobilization Klingmuller et al. Although the Middle East is a global change hot spot, it receives relatively little attention, e. One reason is that observational data are insufficient, unavailable or of limited quality. AQABA was a comprehensive ship borne measurement and modeling campaign of reactive gases and particles, to study the pronounced regional contrasts that occur in atmospheric pollutant and dust concentrations.

It took place in summer covering a track from Toulon, France to Kuwait through the Mediterranean and around the Arabian Peninsula and back. The session invites all relevant contributions from the region and results from the AQABA campaign will be presented. The aim of this general session is to bring together the scientific community within air pollution modelling.

The focus is ongoing research, new results and current problems related to the field of modelling the atmospheric transport and transformation on global, regional and local scales. All presentations covering the research area of air pollution modelling are welcome, including recent model developments, applications and evaluations, physical and chemical parameterisations, process understanding, model testing, evaluation and uncertainty estimates, emissions, numerical methods, model systems and integration, forecasting, event-studies, scenarios, ensembles, assessment, etc.

This is a general open session on all aspects of gas phase chemistry. The focus of this year will be on processes affecting the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, particularly perturbations to HOx and NOx levels in the troposphere. Field measurements, laboratory and theoretical studies which do not fit into one of the other special sessions are welcome. Air pollution is of great concern by the public and government in Asia, specifically in India and China, due to the risk to human health. To elucidate the formation mechanisms of air pollution in Asia, numerous field studies and modelling studies have been conducted in different Asian countries in the recent years, accompanied by mandatory emission restriction strategies that have been put into action.

This session aims for presentations about recent results from field studies, and also air quality monitoring activities in Asia linked to photochemistry, aerosols, emissions of air pollutants and tropospheric chemical composition. All stages of data analysis are welcome in this session, including presentations of early field data, modelling studies, and results on the global impact of air pollution in Asia. Cities are hotspots for the emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from traffic, industries, household heating and energy production.

Air pollution impacts are episodic and often co-occur with heat waves and allergenic pollen release. Greenhouse gases are often co-emitted with air pollutants. This session intends to bring together researchers of urban air quality and greenhouse gases and will accept submissions of topics related to urban air quality, heat stress, and air pollution impacts including health. The presentations focus on new developments in the field of ground and satellite observations, process modelling, data merging and downscaling related to urban air quality.

Air pollution species may include anthropogenic and biogenic ones, including greenhouse gases and allergenic pollen, their isotopes and concentration ratios. The session focuses on the variability of the tropospheric and stratospheric chemical composition on diurnal, seasonal and longer timescales and looks at the processes driving this variability. Special emphasis is put on the scientific value of high-quality long-term measurement data sets and supporting model simulations. Both approaches contribute to improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the variability of atmospheric chemical composition including multiple gaseous species.

Presentations related to the projections of the atmospheric composition are welcome in this session as well. Data relevant to tropospheric and stratospheric composition, in particular related to ozone depletion, climate change and air quality as well as firn data on past atmospheric composition are welcome. We welcome contributions from multi-year modeling studies and inter-comparison exercises which address past and future tropospheric or stratospheric composition changes, carried out in the framework of international projects and initiatives.

The session will be dedicated in particular to the celebration of the 30th anniversary of the GAW Programme. Measurements of gaseous compounds and particles in the atmosphere play a critical role in our understanding of air quality, human and ecosystem health and the mechanisms governing the Earth's climate.

Monitoring long term spatial and temporal changes in amount fractions of regulated air pollutants, greenhouse gases, precursors to secondary pollutants e. Ambient amount fractions and stable isotope ratios of many trace gases as well as particle number concentrations and size distributions are routinely observed within networks of monitoring sites and on mobile measurement platforms around the globe. Ensuring the quality and comparability of all these datasets is critical to improve reliability and reduce uncertainty in our understanding of the Earths system.

This session invites contributions that seek to address the fundamental metrology needed to underpin long term ambient monitoring of trace gases and particles ensuring coherent and comparable measurements. Significant uncertainties exist in our understanding of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes between land or ocean and atmosphere on regional and global scales. Remotely-sensed CO2 and CH4 observations provide a significant potential for improving our understanding of the natural carbon cycle and for the monitoring of anthropogenic emissions.

Over the last few years, remote sensing technologies for measuring CO2 and CH4 from space, aircraft, and from the ground made great advances and new passive and active instruments from different platforms became available offering unprecedented accuracy and coverage. This session is open to contributions related to all aspects of remote sensing of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 from current, upcoming and planned satellite missions e.

This includes, e. Accurate and precise atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gas GHG concentrations reveal the rapid and unceasing rise of global GHG concentrations due to human activity. The resulting increases in global temperatures, sea-level, glacial retreat, and other negative impacts are clear. In response to this evidence, nations, states, and cities, private enterprises and individuals have been accelerating GHG reduction efforts while meeting the needs of global development.

The urgency, complexity and economic implications of GHG reductions demand strategic investment in science-based information for planning and tracking emission reduction policies and actions. IG3IS combines atmospheric GHG concentration measurements and human-activity data in an inverse modeling framework to help decision-makers take better-informed action to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants that reduce air quality.

This service is based on existing and successful measurement and analysis methods and use-cases for which the scientific and technical skill is proven or emerging. Anthropogenic methane emissions are responsible for roughly one quarter of net radiative forcing from GHGs. Its short atmospheric lifetime makes its mitigation an impactful way to reduce the near-term rate of warming.

Atmospheric observations can provide valuable information to 1 reduce uncertainty on magnitude of emissions 2 attribute emissions to specific sources and 3 identify mitigation opportunities. This session solicits research that focuses on methane emissions from human activities e. We encourage submissions that highlight how atmospheric observations -at different scales- better constrain the magnitude of different emission sources and provide information that can guide relevant stakeholders to reduce emissions.

Public information : Anthropogenic methane emissions are responsible for roughly one quarter of net radiative forcing from GHGs. We will present research that focuses on methane emissions from human activities e. Understanding atmospheric transport of trace species and aerosols is a topic that critically depends on bringing modeling and observational efforts together.

The purpose of this session is to enable such connections, with a secondary focus on Lagrangian modeling of the atmosphere. Vertical and long-range transport of trace species and aerosols are key factors controlling their concentrations and variability. Various surface emissions have a strong direct influence on the upper troposphere via several vertical transport processes, especially cumulus convection and lifting associated with frontal systems warm and cold conveyor belts.


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Downward transport occurs via accompanying subsidence, while precipitation scavenging is one of the key sinks for many gases and aerosols.